Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog

26 Jan

The Blow by Blow on Leaf Blower Abuse

I try to keep a level head and my language clean when I’m writing but when it comes to leaf blowers all bets are off, because leaf blowers blow, or that is they suck, if you know what I mean. My favorite descriptive term for these devices is “Polluting-Noise-Bazookas”.  Need I say more?

Here at Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping we support a leaf blower ban and we recognize that we are in the minority within our industry on this subject. We must be an oxymoron. I mean, how can we be a landscape business and not be completely enamored with the omnipresent labor-saving device known as the leaf blower? This is a touchy subject or should I say a noisy one? Everyone has an opinion about gas powered leaf blowers, from the folks like myself who refer to them as Polluting Noise Bazookas, to those who think of them as indispensable and use them as a primary tool in outdoor janitorial work. I thought it would be helpful to lay out the issue blow by blow if you will.

It is good to understand both sides of the story. Believe me, I know, I’ve been there. “My Escape from the Land of the Two-stroke Back-pack Bowers” is an article I wrote a few years ago to tell my story. While I do address electric leaf blowers, what follows primarily discusses the use of gas-powered leaf blowers because they are the main offenders in this story.

My friend Steve Zien is Executive Director of Biological Urban Gardening Services (BUGS), an international membership organization of professional landscapers. He states, “BUGS has opposed the use of leaf blowers for many years for a variety of reasons. There are many hidden costs when utilizing blowers regularly. The leaf blower is perhaps the most over-used and inappropriately used landscape tool. Autumn’s tremendous amount of organic debris that requires collection might be considered appropriate use of this tool. However, the weekly routine of blowing abuses the soil and damages landscape plants while the noise creates ill will from neighbors and clients alike.”

A conservative estimate is that there are four million leaf blowers in California to date. The majority are gas-powered. Everyday these blowers spew over 1.5 million gallons of raw, unburned, two-stroke fuel into California air for a total of over 540 million gallons per year. This dumps over 48,000 tons of carbon dioxide into California air, totaling over 18 million tons per year. This is a significant contributor to climate change.

*A Grand Jury convened on the subject of leaf blowers in San Luis Obispo County, CA, concluding that, “Considering the evidence…the health hazards citizens are exposed to from two-cycle leaf blowers outweigh the possible benefit they provide.” The Grand Jury went on to recommend that all cities within that county initiate a phase out of leaf blowers.

*From Citizens for a Quieter Sacramento

What are the ecological, health and social impacts of gas-powered leaf blowers?

Most professional gas leaf blowers are two-stroke. The two-stroke engine is a major polluter because it burns oil in addition to gas. The exhaust, along with the particulate matter that is blown into the air, lowers air quality, and foists noise pollution upon anyone within a few blocks’ radius.

1. Air Pollution

*According to the California Air Resources Board the types of air pollutants emitted when using a gasoline-powered leaf blower for half an hour are equivalent to those emitted from 440 miles of automobile travel at 30mph average speed. Compared to an average large car, one hour of operation of a leaf blower emits 498 times as many hydrocarbons, 49 times as much particulate matter, and 26 times as much carbon monoxide.

*Data found at Greenwich Citizens Against Leaf Blower Mania

Here are the results of an emissions test by Edmunds Video Productions titled Car vs. Truck vs. Leaf Blower  (December 2, 2011). Note that cars emit pollution over a long stretch of road, dispersing it, while leaf blowers deposit it all in one small area. The tongue in cheek conclusion of this video? It would cause less pollution to use the Ford Raptor Pick-Up to blow leaves than the two-stroke leaf blower.

Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC)Parts per million Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)Parts per million Carbon Monoxide (CO)By percentage
2011 Ford Raptor Pick-Up Truck 0.005 0.005 0.276
2012 Fiat 500 0.016 0.010 0.192
4-Stroke Leaf Blower 0.182 0.031 3.714
2- Stroke 50 cc Leaf Blower 1.495 0.010 6.445

2. Dust

According to Ask Green America  the high-velocity air jets from leaf blowers suspend dust and pollutants. The particulate matter (PM) swept into the air is composed of dust, fecal matter, pesticides, fungi, chemicals, fertilizers, spores, and street dirt which may contain lead, cadmium and organic and elemental carbon. Roughly five pounds of PM per leaf blower per hour are swept into the air and take hours to settle.

3. Noise

In many places today, the soundscape is sacrificed in the quest for the perfect landscape. Many people and organizations say this is not an equitable exchange.*

  • The World Health Organization recommends noise levels of 55 decibels or less, and 45 decibels to meet sleep criteria. Gas leaf blowers generally measure at least 65-75 decibels at 50 feet away, and much higher at close range.
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that noise levels over 75 decibels can cause hearing loss and are harmful to human health.

*Data is from Citizens for a Quieter Sacramento  and  Greenwich Citizens Against Leaf Blower Mania

Leaf blowers may be one of the most egregious noise offenders but when you add lawn mowers, weed whackers and hedge trimmers it is truly crazy making. It is time to find a way to turn the noise off.

4. Denuding the soil

As its name implies the leaf blower’s primary benefit is gathering leaves for disposal. This is all well and fine from the standpoint of risk management – in particular, reducing the liability of people slipping on leaves on walkways, a concern of homeowners associations and businesses alike. Unfortunately, what goes along with this is the propensity of operators to use blowers to remove leaves from soil areas. When leaves are removed, soil is denuded of this natural mulch. Leaf litter benefits the soil by increasing organic matter, preventing erosion caused by wind and rain, and by keeping the soil cool in the summer months. It also saves water and reduces the need for irrigation. For these reasons, blowing leaves off soil areas is now considered a poor management practice, and should be avoided.

How necessary are leaf blowers really?

According to the California Landscape Contractors Association’s (CLCA) website, leaf blowers are an “extremely efficient and safe tool.” The CLCA further asserts that, “Most landscape industry estimates suggest that it takes at least five times as long to clean a typical landscape site with a broom and rake than it does with a power leaf blower.” CLCA believes many clients can’t afford or are not willing to pay for the additional cost of landscape maintenance without the leaf blower. CLCA does not consider electric leaf blowers to be a viable alternative to gas powered leaf blowers. To sum it up, says CLCA, “…while we recognize public concerns with (gas) leaf blower noise and air emissions, these devices are absolutely essential for the economic well being of our industry.”

Then I say, consider this excerpt from an article by Zero Air Pollution, an L.A.-based organization that ran the headline:

*Grandmother Proves Rake and Broom as Fast as Leaf Blowers (January 8, 1998 press release from Zero Air Pollution, Los Angeles)

In fighting the ban on gas-powered maintenance gardeners have argued that it would take them twice as long to do jobs if they had to use rakes and brooms. But Diane Wolfberg, a Palisadian grandmother in her late 50s, proved them wrong in tests conducted by the Department of Water & Power Leafblower Task Force last Thursday.

In three tests involving gas powered leaf blowers and battery powered leaf blowers, Diane cleaned the areas using rakes or brooms faster than any of the battery powered blowers and almost as fast as the gas powered leaf blowers and she did a better job in cleaning up the areas.

The full article can be found here… Leaf Blowers Slower than Rakes and Brooms 

When CLCA says, “leaf blowers are absolutely essential for the economic well being of our industry’, I reply, the whole calculation of the necessity of the leaf blower should take into account the value of peace and quiet. If the job can be accomplished by other quieter means (like rakes and brooms) then the argument becomes, must we allow leaf blowers solely for the sake of Mow, Blow and Go businesses? That is a different argument altogether because if I don’t like leaf blowers in the first place then why would I give a hoot for businesses that are largely dependent on them? I used to think gas leaf blowers where a necessary evil until I saw their larger impacts.

Electric leaf blower vs. a rake and a broom. A Terra Nova comparison test.

We believe the grandmother story but for the sake of integrity, we conducted our own comparison test between a leaf blower and a rake and broom.

In the interest of full disclosure it should be known that we used an electric leaf blower, which we do employ from time to time in our landscape maintenance service. (Electric blowers are not as loud as gas blowers but they still make noise and cause particulate matter pollution, and we believe they should be used very sparingly.)

We performed our test at a client’s property, cleaning the exact same concrete walkway area with the exact same volume of leaves and dirt spread out (one trash can full). And we got the same results as the grandma from Southnern Cal. The electric blower took 11 minutes and 56 seconds and the rake and broom took 9 minutes and 17 seconds!

This confirmed our commitment to use a rake and broom as the first option.

This test was conducted in an area that is fairly easy to clean and, because there are places that the electric blower is indeed faster than a broom, our leaf blower position is this: We do not use gas leaf blowers ever. We commit to using a rake and broom first and an electric leaf blower as the last option after all impacts are considered.

We support a gas leaf blower ban because we believe we would have a healthier more peaceful world without them.

Can we reduce gas leaf blower impacts?

There are numerous ways that leaf blowers are misused and abused. If leaf blower operators modified their practices it might ease the perception that a ban is the only solution. Indeed, CLCA says, “A leaf blower ban should be a last resort and enacted only after exhausting (ironic word choice) all other alternatives.”

Currently there are twenty California cities that have banned gas (not electric) leaf blowers. The problem is that no one is presenting the alternatives to this pervasive and vexing problem. Whose role is it to educate leaf blower operators? If contractors do not deal with the problem, by default it is left up to citizens who are already fed up. Mow, Blow and Go landscape companies don’t seem to care and in this void a ban starts to seem attractive. To their credit, CLCA has published the following guidelines addressing leaf blower abuse:

“Educational programs should include the following information:

  • Generally speaking, leaf blowers should be run at half throttle most of the time. Low throttle speeds not only significantly reduce sound, but they also provide the operator with maximum control. Full throttle is seldom necessary.
  • Leaf blowers should not be used in residential areas at unreasonable hours — early in the morning or late at night when people are likely to be disturbed.
  • Debris should never be blown onto adjacent property, the street, vehicles, people, or pets.
  • Crews should operate only one leaf blower at a time on small residential sites.
  • Rakes or brooms should be used to loosen heavier debris.
  • The full nozzle extension should be used so the air stream can work close to the ground.
  • The muffler, air intakes, and air filters should be routinely checked to make sure they are working properly.
  • Leaf blowers should not be used to move large debris piles from one spot to another.
  • If conditions are very dry, mister attachments should be used. They suppress dust.”

To this I would add another bullet point:

  • Outdated equipment should be replaced.

Further, landscape professionals and homeowners should be informed about the noise levels of leaf-blower equipment before purchasing. Most buyers, if properly informed, will opt for the quietest equipment, all other factors being equal. Unfortunately, some manufacturers do not disclose this information. To this end manufacturers should comply with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B 175.2 Standard for Hand-Held and Backpack Gasoline-Engine-Powered Blowers.

ANSI recommends that manufacturers do the following:

  • Adhere to the ANSI 175.2 sound-level test procedure.
  • Ensure that all equipment and packaging are clearly and durably marked with the decibel rating.
  • Establish a certification program to identify products that comply with the ANSI 175.2 standard.

Furthermore, we encourage manufacturers to amend the standard to establish maximum sound levels.

*Information found at …Land Care Network

What are the alternatives?

There may not be an alternative to leaf blowers that does not require a different mindset.

My broom runs on orange juice and toast. – *Rakes and brooms are, by far, the safest, easiest to use and most inexpensive of all methods. They are also lightweight, easy to store, emissions-free, very quiet, require little maintenance and are not a target for thieves as a leaf blower is.

I once saw a poster for a landscaper that boasted that they used pollution-free blowers. It turns out their leaf blower was an old hand crank seed spreader with a drainage pipe attached to the end of it. I gave it a whirl and it seemed to be a little less effective than a broom. Oh well, nice try. At Terra Nova we have made a viable business out of offering alternatives to conventional landscaping that do work. This is a service that strikes a cord in people, they see the value in landscaping that respects the soundscape and that leaves a lighter footprint. The message from this experience is that alternatives exist that can restore landscaping to an enjoyable endeavor for all concerned.

* Information found at the Clean Houston website

Stopping leaf blower abuse.

When neighborhoods and the people in them are left in the dust of leaf blower abuse, there is a vacuum. The inaction of the ‘Green industry’ to address these problems is a call to action by the citizenry. The leaf blower bans that have been enacted fill this void. Education is essential and this blow by blow account of the issue is an attempt at that. If it falls on deaf, or rather ‘protected’ ears then I believe a ban may be the last best way to defend the basic human right to peace and quiet. According to a study by Palo Alto, CA. some cities do not regulate leaf blowers at all, and regulatory strategies in other cities “fall into six basic categories:  1) time of day/day of week, 2) noise levels, 3) area specific, 4) bans, 5) educational approach, or 6) a combination of the five.” I vote for number 6. I believe a combination of efforts would be the most effective way to reduce leaf blower abuse.

The Mow, Blow and Go approach makes a mockery of the art of landscape gardening. It is a sad state of affairs when you know the gardeners have arrived by how much noise they make. It is time to take the noise out of the landscape. As a concerned member of my community and as a landscape business owner I am willing to stand up and say: “I am a landscape contractor and I am opposed to leaf blower abuse. I support a ban.” I am available to join in efforts for appropriate action in my area of Santa Cruz, Ca. such as a Leaf Blower Task Force. Citizens everywhere must organize to take back their right to peace and quiet by drafting a plan that meets the needs of the local community. I can be reached at Ken@terranovalandscaping.com. Please join us in finding a solution to leaf blower abuse.

- Ken Foster


136 Responses to “The Blow by Blow on Leaf Blower Abuse”

  1. 1
    Chris Bennett Says:

    Greetings from Orange County. Thanks for your addressing leaf blower noise issues. Leaf blower noise has been a problem where I live for a few years now. Excessively loud machines are used virtually everywhere in my area, Monday through Saturday, even as late as 7:30pm. I have double-paned windows, but the excessively loud noise easily slips through the windows into my living space. The only way I’ve been able to deal with things, is to wear strong, tight-fitting ear plugs. I just got word from a Sergeant on my city’s police force that he will meet with me and another officer soon. I’ve been thinking of ways to minimize the noise at the source. That would require having the landscapers to use quiet machines. It’s disappointing to realize that even if I were to offer to buy — with my own money — a quiet machine for every single landscaper in my area, I doubt that any of them would bite on the offer. They’d probably sell my free machines for money and get louder ones in return.

    Things just didn’t use to be like this fifteen years ago. But at some point, they invaded. Excessively loud machines. Why? Because the residential community has enabled them.

    At The Daily Decibel, I’ve addressed noise issues in many posts. Not all situations are the same, so I’m not sure if a ban would work in my area. I’m confident that nobody would obey it. The landscapers obviously don’t mind using such high-decibel machines, and obviously the property owners don’t mind it either. And if there were a tight ban, would it be enforced? If not, then what? I’ve recently read that Santa Monica’s ban has had little enforcement and so the problem apparently has continued for residents of Santa Monica. And I’ve also recently read that Houston’s ban hasn’t been enforced. CleanHouston dot org claims that it’s rarely, if ever, been enforced.

    As I mentioned, each situation is not exactly the same. Maybe it’s possible for a ban to work. But I doubt it. (Sorry for the pessimism there.) For now, my solution has been to wear tight-fitting earplugs. I stuff those puppies waaaaay in, tightly into the ear canal. It’s the only way, for now.

  2. 2
    Ken Says:

    Hmm… have not considered these facts before. Thank you for the post… definitely a good topic to mull over. Personally, I don’t fins leaf blowers very helpful. At times they even require more work to use. Kind of ironic, no?

  3. 3
    nikki Says:

    Blowers have become the bane of society. I have personally encountered them in USA, UK and Mexico in recent years. Gardening was formerly an activity that enhanced the natural surrounding, induced bird life and gave a respite to the grind of work life and urban impact. Somehow, ‘landscaping and landscape maintenance’ has become an economic activity, divorced from the peace of gardening and influenced by the so called pragmatism and economics of profit and convenience. It has little to do with the connection to nature and more to do with cosmetics and neatness, much like food becoming cosmetic rather than ethically or environmentally, soundly produced.
    In recent years I have been in situations where leaf blowers are being used 2 at a time in the most rural of settings, where they have never been used before. This has become the enticement about time-saving vs respect for all surrounding life.
    I totally support a ban on leaf blowers. It is outrageous that as a society we blithely accept this obscene intrusion. I cannot go for a walk on a weekday in Aptos without going 10 – 15 minutes without hearing a leaf blower. I recently swam at a club where 2 leaf blowers were going around the pool!!
    There must be a huge gap in the market for wonderful garden brooms. Perhaps the campaign
    can be for a brand of brooms and rakes that have an anti-leaf blower name to them: like THE ZEN BROOM——-THE SILENT BROOM——–THE NO-NOISE RAKE—— THE BIRD FRIENDLY RAKE——THE NEIGHBORHOOD PEACE BROOM.
    Quality of life is way superior to expediency especially when it comes to nature.

  4. 4
    Belgard Pavers Says:

    Leaf blowers are annoying really, i think they should change their job to stop blowing dust in to our windows

  5. 5
    Cheap Landscape Blocks Pavers Stones Says:

    Stop leaf blowing during landscaping projects now! And BTW, Talk is cheap!

  6. 6
    howard Says:

    In the hands of a qualified operator, the blower is an aid to sustainablity. Leaves can be put on the soil or on the lawn for cycling. In the hands of a straight pipe, high noise volume moron, it can make make a difference in the affordablity of sustainable concept.

  7. 7
    yonat michaelov Says:

    is there a way to get Santa Cruz city to consider banning leaf blowing? did you explore it? i’m so sick and tired of that noisy polluting machines, with an aggressive operators .

  8. 8
    Open Letter to Landscapers and Leaf Blower Operators in the Santa Cruz Area January 31, 2012 | Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog Says:

    [...] you to show concern for your community. For more information, you can visit the Terra Nova Blog (http://www.terranovalandscaping.com/blog/2012/01/26/the-blow-by-blow-on-leaf-blowers/) and read the article: “The Blow by Blow on Leaf Blower [...]

  9. 9
    Peter Kendall Says:

    Ken, an exceptional piece you’ve written here! Our new website for Quiet orinda will launch soon, and we’ll feature your blog and firm in our News Section. I’ll also meniton you at the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Districts Conference on lawn care in March. Keep up the great work, and we look forward to working with you. Peter K.,Quiet Orinda

  10. 10
    bestelectricleafblowersreviews Says:

    Thanks for sharing these facts. I never thought about how rakes and brooms. “Rakes and brooms are, by far, the safest, easiest to use and most inexpensive of all methods. They are also lightweight, easy to store, emissions-free, very quiet, require little maintenance and are not a target for thieves as a leaf blower is.” – Really appreciate this thought. Thanks and more power!

  11. 11
    Landscapers Says:

    Leaves should always be cleaned up in any landscaping project!

  12. 12
    ken Says:

    Actually Best Management Practice’s indicate that the opposite is true. That’s why they call them leaves, because you’re supposed to leave them.

  13. 13
    johnny gardener Says:

    Your figures for cleaning with a rake and broom compared to leaf blower are
    completely meaningless. It depends on many factors such as
    leaf/twig/debris size, shape and texture, the surface area, surface type,
    terrain, moisture, etc.. Try doing landscape maintenance full time at
    sites with 50-year old, fully grown trees and shrubs. Blowers save much
    effort and labor. Landscape workers perform other tasks beside besides only the clean-up.
    There is an implication in anti-blower rhetoric that gardeners are lazy.

    Anti-leaf blower groups are not objective sources on emission information. A 2010 query for California was done at the
    C.A.R.B Estimated Annual Emissions webpage. All commercial leaf blowers
    emitted 8.98 tons per day of Total Organic gases (hydrocarbons), 19 tons
    of carbon monoxide (CO), and .16 tons of nitrogen oxide(NOX). All on-road
    motor vehicles emitted 608 tons of TOG, 5290 tons of carbon monoxide, and
    1,407 tons of NOX. For comparison, all recreational boats emitted 137 tons
    of TOG, 729 tons of CO, and 37 tons of NOX. The “Grand” total for the state
    was 5,679 tons of TOG, 10,542 tons of CO, and 2981 tons of NOX. By the way,
    all commercial chain saws emitted nearly twice the TOG of leaf blowers and
    50% more CO.

    Small engines generate much less
    carbon dioxide compared to big engines such as cars or trucks because they
    burn much less fuel. It is around 19.4 pounds CO2 per gallon.
    Unlike other activities, the emissions from tools gardeners use are being offset by the trees, shrubs, and lawns we maintain and the increased property values and enjoyment well-maintained landscapes bring.

    Leaf blowers are not used correctly and run way too loud by a high
    percentage of operators but it is not fair to ban or severely restrict them
    for everyone. I use my equipment properly and take
    care to avoid dust and noise. I ve been at landscape maintenance for 30
    years and have never gotten a complaint about blower noise.
    I am sick of the anti’s lies and exaggerations. Ive heard everything from
    leaf blowers caused someone’s cat to get cancer to leaf blowers cause
    asthma. Fine. I want some proof (scientific bona fide research and studies) before you take away or restrict my tools.

  14. 14
    nikki Says:

    Comparisons are erroneous. Pollution is be addressed one issue at a time, and the issue here is the leaf blower. Noise is possibly one of the biggest and people have been forebearant and polite about the ridiculous noise that is yet another bane in our society. Often times the public put up and shut up and do not know how to lobby for change. It can often have to get really bad before people finally rise up and protest something they simply cannot tolerate any longer.There is no implication about laziness for not using tools other than leaf blowers..Landscape maintenance of all persuasions is hard work. And nor should we vilify the past or past methods as ineffective or antiquated. Not everything done in modern society is appropriate to be doing —-and call it opinion…but leaf blowing is simply another one. This holy equation of expedience and efficiency for wages has been the equation for massive impact on all environmental levels. The argument has to shift from money or the environment. It is a riddle that is past its’ due date.

  15. 15
    johnny gardener Says:

    I knew the response ahead of time: change the subject to
    its really all about the noise. Of course, you don t spend long using that tactic-only long enough to dodge the question of accurately assessing the environmental impact of leaf blowers – before slithering back into assuming leaf blowers have “massive impact” (why? anything that makes that much noise must have massive environmental impact, of course)

    You presume to speak for all “people” and “the public.” Menlo park had an election on the issue of leaf blowers, and the “people” voted to overturn a leaf blower ban.

    “The argument has to shift from money or the environment.”: Right, and lets start with gardeners(i.e. SOMEBODY ELSE), a conveniently weak political and economic force (and even if its really just about the noise).
    Why don’t you tell us what YOU are going to do about improving the environment? Are you going to quit eating animal products? Quit driving a car? Quit flying on airplanes? Don t tell me about expediency.

  16. 16
    Renaldo Behme Says:

    Absolutely hearttouching!!

  17. 17
    Tom Dwan News Says:

    I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays..

  18. 18
    cosmetic coupons Says:

    Thank you for the good writeup. It in truth used to be a entertainment account it. Look advanced to more brought agreeable from you! By the way, how can we communicate?

  19. 19
    website zone Says:

    Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back often!

  20. 20
    www.e-wizytowki.net Says:

    Hi there! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!

  21. 21
    school backpack Says:

    great issues altogether, you simply won a brand new reader. What would you recommend in regards to your put up that you made a few days ago? Any positive?

  22. 22
    travel backpack Says:

    Whats up very cool web site!! Man .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds also¡KI’m satisfied to seek out numerous useful information right here within the publish, we want work out extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing. . . . . .

  23. 23
    top travel backpacks Says:

    Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such great information being shared freely out there.

  24. 24
    mold remediation Denver Says:

    Howdy this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding experience so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

  25. 25
    check this out Says:

    I do enjoy the manner in which you have framed this specific difficulty plus it really does give me personally some fodder for consideration. Nevertheless, from what precisely I have observed, I only hope as other feed-back pile on that people today remain on point and not get started upon a tirade involving the news of the day. Anyway, thank you for this excellent point and though I do not necessarily go along with the idea in totality, I respect the point of view.

  26. 26
    Self Storage Los Angeles Says:

    I am curious to find out what blog platform you are utilizing? I’m having some small security problems with my latest blog and I would like to find something more safeguarded. Do you have any recommendations?

  27. 27
    Allison Says:

    I hate the noise, and have focused primarily on that. You make many other good points that I hadn’t considered — for example, the deleterious effects on the soil.

    The other side of the coin is for people who are not able to do the physical work the leaf blower does for them. Many folks just can’t afford to hire someone to do it by hand, and can’t do it with own steam.

    As usual, we’ve created not just a machine, but complexity.

  28. 28
    Mary E Knippel Says:

    Rakes and brooms are much better for the environment – and our eardrums!

  29. 29
    Plumbers Blackpool Says:

    This is a sensible subject and you seem to have started a strong debate…in the end, we know we can’t satisfy everyone, so we need to decide what’s more important…

  30. 30
    cole guha Says:

    if they lie crushed on the ground, you have to have not make them responsible for misery,” writes Beck in Enjoyment is inside the Waiting…Insight from Martha. “If you raise your eyes from the shards you will uncover much more dreams all around, and a lot of of them http://www.cannabisseedsforsale.net/germinate-marijuana-seeds

  31. 31
    home repair Says:

    Dealing with construction companies consultants is tough with so many crooks on the web

  32. 32
    freshwater aquarium plant Store Says:

    It’s actually a cool and useful piece of info. I am glad that you shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

  33. 33
    Carolina Akiona Says:

    AmericanHealthJournal is looking for partner blogs in the medical field. AmericanHealthJournal is a medicine website with over three thousand of high quality medical videos. We are looking for site owners who are interested in writing guest blog articles to our web site. . Contact us at our contact page on our site.

  34. 34
    Marilee Says:

    I’ve been browsing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

  35. 35
    indianhumanhair Says:

    Theres another Kirby out there! I guess I may have to start posting using my last name a rare situation with a name like Kirby http://sanwigel.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-1.html

  36. 36
    Leaf Blower Pollution Task Force Santa Cruz inaugural meeting. Save the date. | Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog Says:

    [...] Blow By Blow on Leaf Blower Abuse. [...]

  37. 37
    Cammie Bilton Says:

    http://www.healdsburgcahvaccontractor.com , Furnace Repair Healdsburg, Heater Repair Healdsburg, HVAC Contractor Healdsburg I received an excellent service from the A/C contractor that came at home yesterday!

  38. 38
    Ted Says:

    Leaf blowers-blow leaves
    Leaf blowers-blow snow
    Leaf blowers- used as a broom…
    Leaf blowers- car dryer..?

    While blowing the leaves in the fall is bad, its the spring, summer and winter time that gets me. People who feel the need to use it for a broom or even the snow. I even read one forum comment about a guy asking which would be good to dry his car…

    Thankfully people are starting to complain a lot more and more n more places are banning them in the off seasons. I

  39. 39
    Alternatives to the gas powered leaf blower. Read it and sweep. | Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog Says:

    [...] Learn more about the down sides of gas leaf blowers. [...]

  40. 40
    Makeda Ebe Says:

    You can not use the white dwelling site as your campaign desperation advertising.

  41. 41
    monster energy hats for kids Says:

    When apparel becomes simple, medallion upon your mind are going to be your lovely natural environment. Very, this is unhurried for you to igniter by using filum conversation and reliure, so AMERICAN FOOTBAL built in hats is definitely the goodish pick pertaining to cool collection.

  42. 42
    Zakopane Says:

    I am happy to see so various constructive facts in this article, we should have develop extra methods regarding this.

  43. 43
    click here Says:

    This is simply not onlly one of your news I’ve look at, and you never cease to astonish me. Thanks a lot, and I look ahead to browsing more.

  44. 44
    check website Says:

    Analyzing knowledge delivered here I get to various important final thoughts. I would really like to value your effort incurred in composing.

  45. 45
    carpet cleaning Says:

    Throughout school choices the very conventional approach for cleaning carpeting and rugs together with some sort of suitable container involving awesome water and soap will certainly not really give good results.

  46. 46
    carpet cleaning Says:

    You are required to try to remember a couple matters so that you can ascertain your performance regarding carpet cleaning devices.

  47. 47
    porn Says:

    Some like it, some don`t care..

  48. 48
    garage door repair az Says:

    Effortlessly these kind of perks, isn’t very that time for it to placed the house exterior doors regarding your current variety of real estate developments?

  49. 49
    rock clothing stores los angeles Says:

    Thank you for another informative blog. The place else may
    just I am getting that type of info written in such a perfect approach?
    I have a mission that I’m simply now working on, and I’ve been at the look out for such info.

  50. 50
    wizytówki Says:

    My family members every time say that I am killing my time here
    at web, except I know I am getting knowledge everyday by reading thes good

  51. 51
    Food City 500 Live Stream Says:

    Hi, Neat post. There is an issue together with your site in web explorer, might test this? IE nonetheless is the market leader and a large component of people will leave out your great writing because of this problem.

  52. 52
    Food City 500 Live Says:

    Thanks for any other magnificent article. The place else could anyone get that type of information in such a perfect method of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m on the search for such info.

  53. 53
    Here’s to No-Blow Gardens | Garden Rant Says:

    [...] a grandma with a rake against a pro with a leafblower.   A landscaping company conducted its own test, which led it to choose rakes over leafblowers. Posted by Garden Rant on March 21, 2013 at 6:55 am, in the category Gardening on the Planet, Guest [...]

  54. 54
    Heres to No-Blow Gardens | Mobinop Says:

    [...] a grandma with a rake against a pro with a leafblower. A landscaping company conducted its own test, which led it to choose rakes over leafblowers. Posts related to Heres to No-Blow GardensA Gardening Boomers Equipment Wish-ListGuest Rant by [...]

  55. 55
    Here’s to No-Blow Gardens by Garden Rant | #1 In Gardening, Landscaping And Outdoor Living! Says:

    [...] (9)   The Los Angeles Department of Power and Water conducted tests pitting a grandma with a rake against a pro with a leafblower.   A landscaping company conducted its own test, which led it to choose rakes over leafblowers. [...]

  56. 56
    Mexico vs USA Live Stream Says:

    obviously like your web-site but you need to check the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding it very troublesome to inform the truth nevertheless I’ll definitely come back again.

  57. 57
    Mold Removal NJ Says:

    UGH! This is why I don’t post on blogs. Where did my comment go?

  58. 58
    Dwight Fulfer Says:

    My dream retirement would involve a awesome log cabin in the mountains. Who needs a beach?

  59. 59
    nike canada Says:

    hi!,I really like your writing so a lot! proportion we communicate extra about your post on AOL? I need a specialist in this house to resolve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Looking ahead to peer you.

  60. 60
    Here’s to No-Blow Gardens by Garden Rant | My Garden Group Says:

    [...] a grandma with a rake against a pro with a leafblower.   A landscaping company conducted its own test, which led it to choose rakes over leafblowers. [...]

  61. 61
    Franklyn Marquette Says:

    Many thanks a lot this publish, it is truly good!

  62. 62
    price Says:

    It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this put up and if I could I desire to recommend you some interesting things or tips. Perhaps you can write subsequent articles referring to this article. I want to learn more things approximately it!

  63. 63
    binoa Says:

    I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did
    you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz answer back as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from. cheers

    my weblog binoa

  64. 64
    Shemika Kannady Says:

    Are you are fed up paying high electricity bills ? then it is time for you to install solar power unit onto your house. Its a easy and reliable way of saving your dollars. also it could even make you a few dollars ! You can sell any unwanted solar energy back to the utilitie companys

  65. 65
    Male Extra Pills Says:

    Great paintings! That is the type of information that are supposed to be shared around the net. Disgrace on the search engines for now not positioning this submit higher! Come on over and seek advice from my website . Thank you =)

  66. 66
    Teodora Emert Says:

    This can be a very fabulous blog. What you write about really get to me and most of times, I feel the same way!

  67. 67
    bed e breakfast Says:

    Thanks for giving your ideas in this article. The other factor is that any time a problem appears with a computer motherboard, persons should not go ahead and take risk of repairing this themselves for if it is not done correctly it can lead to permanent damage to the entire laptop. It is almost always safe to approach a dealer of a laptop for your repair of that motherboard. They’ve already technicians who have an know-how in dealing with mobile computer motherboard problems and can carry out the right diagnosis and perform repairs.

  68. 68
    computer repair houston $49.97 clean virus and free antivirus - estimates, Expert, Reliable PC Diagnostic. Serviced Onsite Call 281.701.2651 Says:

    I simply couldn’t depart your web site before suggesting that I actually enjoyed the standard info a person provide to your guests? Is going to be again steadily in order to inspect new posts

  69. 69
    Klaipeda hotel Says:

    This is really attention-grabbing, You are an overly professional blogger. I have joined your feed and look ahead to in search of extra of your fantastic post. Additionally, I’ve shared your site in my social networks

  70. 70
    Film Dla Elen Says:

    In the awesome pattern of things you’ll secure a B- with regard to hard work. Where exactly you lost me ended up being on the details. As people say, details make or break the argument.. And it couldn’t be much more true here. Having said that, let me inform you what did work. Your writing is actually quite convincing which is probably the reason why I am making the effort to comment. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. Next, although I can certainly notice a leaps in reason you make, I am not convinced of just how you seem to connect your points that produce the conclusion. For the moment I shall subscribe to your issue but trust in the foreseeable future you actually link your facts better.

  71. 71
    houston pc repair Says:

    I am really impressed together with your writing abilities as neatly as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s uncommon to see a great weblog like this one these days..

  72. 72
    oil painting wholesale floral Says:

    Hey all, purely turned into cognizant of your blog post by way of Bing, determined that it is definitely informative. My goal is to take care to get the town. I am going to take pleasure in in the event you proceed the following later on. Some people could be benefited from your current creating. Regards!

  73. 73
    Computer Repair Houston, Welcome need you Free Antivirus? get website and download, huge discount all repairs laptop and computer, clean virus, free estimastes, PC Problem? We can fix it today, Than You Visit Computer Repair Houston Says:

    Woah this weblog is excellent i really like reading your posts. Stay up the good work! You already know, lots of people are looking around for this info, you could aid them greatly.

  74. 74
    Computer Repair Orange Park Says:

    I merely weren’t able to leave your blog before implying that we highly treasured the typical data someone provide on your own attendees? Is actually going to be rear constantly to examine new threads

  75. 75
    Federico Almeda Says:

    I have discovered some important things through your blog post. One other stuff I would like to express is that there are numerous games in the marketplace designed mainly for toddler age children. They consist of pattern recognition, colors, family pets, and styles. These normally focus on familiarization instead of memorization. This helps to keep a child occupied without feeling like they are learning. Thanks

  76. 76
    naprawa kuchenek poznan Says:

    After looking over a handful of the articles on your blog, I really appreciate your way of writing a blog.

  77. 77
    paid to type Says:

    Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I’m inspired! Very helpful information specifically the ultimate part :) I maintain such information a lot. I was looking for this certain info for a very long time. Thanks and best of luck.

  78. 78
    oilfield waste disposal Says:

    My husband works in the oil field his clothes always smell funky and are nasty than all get out. Is there any new advance’s in the cleaning them? For now all I pressure wash them with engine cleaner and then put them through the wash with dawn dish liquid then with washing detegent.

  79. 79
    Diets That Work Says:

    |Would you be interested in exchanging links?

  80. 80
    Stefani Grissinger Says:

    great article

  81. 81
    disinfestare zanzare Says:

    Something more important is that when searching for a good internet electronics shop, look for web shops that are continually updated, preserving up-to-date with the hottest products, the best deals, and also helpful information on services. This will make sure that you are doing business with a shop that stays on top of the competition and offers you what you need to make intelligent, well-informed electronics purchases. Thanks for the vital tips I’ve learned through your blog.

  82. 82
    healthy living Says:

    |Spot on with this write-up, I truly think this website needs much more consideration. I’ll probably be again to read much more, thanks for that info.

  83. 83
    Sarasota Air Conditioning Repair Service Says:

    Absolutely no high pressure sales, 24 hour emergency service. AC Today 4223 14th Street West Bradenton, FL 34205-6009 (941) 755-1336

  84. 84
    Augustus Meraz Says:

    if i have just signed up but I really would adore to see a specific letter (Lorelei Lee’s) is there some place i can possibly look at it or obtain a copy somehow?

  85. 85
    valutazioni e quotazioni oro Says:

    I am not certain the place you are getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend a while finding out much more or understanding more. Thank you for magnificent information I was on the lookout for this information for my mission.

  86. 86
    Review The Secrets To Herb Growing Says:

    It’s difficult to find well-informed people about this subject, but you seem like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

  87. 87
    Lesley Yeilding Says:

    I like this web blog very much, Its a really nice office to read and incur info . “I look upon every day to be lost, in which I do not make a new acquaintance.” by Samuel Johnson.

  88. 88
    watch dogs pc game Says:

    You made certain good points there. I did a search on the topic and found a good number of persons will go along with with your blog.

  89. 89
    ?? ???? ?????? ?? Says:

    Wow! This blog looks just like my old one! It’s on a entirely different topic but it
    has pretty much the same layout and design.

    Great choice of colors!

    Also visit my web site: ?? ???? ?????? ??

  90. 90
    The Fall and the Rise of Leaf blowers | the noise curmudgeon Says:

    [...] here is a good piece from a landscaper who makes it very clear that leaf blowers [...]

  91. 91
    Kena Imberg Says:

    Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your blog. You have some really good articles and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d
    absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
    Please send me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

  92. 92
    Steven Jenkins Says:

    This was very informative post and I`m very happy you posted it, also if you know of anyone that needs some air conditioning or heat repair work or new installs and they live in volusia county then please have them visit my website at http://www.daytonabeachairconditioninghvacrepair.com

  93. 93
    http://synergie.in.ua/business/ Says:

    Hello, i think that i saw you visited my blog so i came to “return the favor”.I
    am trying to find things to improve my site!I suppose its
    ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  94. 94
    momo grill Says:

    I believe that has become the a lot material in my opinion. With this particular contented researching a person’s write-up. Nevertheless need to feedback on some fundamental elements, The web page style is fantastic, the particular articles is in point of actuality outstanding : Deborah. Excellent exercise, best wishes

  95. 95
    www Says:

    I’m curious to find out what blog platform you’re working with?

    I’m having some minor security issues with my latest website and I would like to find something more secure.
    Do you have any recommendations?

  96. 96
    decoy bride Says:

    Pretty great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to mention that I’ve really loved
    surfing around your weblog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing in your rss
    feed and I hope you write again soon!

  97. 97
    Halo Nevi Says:

    Hello there I am so happy I found your weblog, I really found you by mistake,
    while I was searching on Digg for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a tremendous post and a all round enjoyable blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to look over
    it all at the minute but I have book-marked it
    and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I
    will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the excellent b.

    Have a look at my site … Halo Nevi

  98. 98
    treatments for baldness in men Says:

    As all the ingredients of Provillus are natural (they include herbal extracts and naturally derived minerals,
    vitamins and acids), this product must be considered a 100% natural approach to solving hair loss problem.
    While a head full of hair seems like an issue of vanity, for many it is a very serious medical problem.
    In addition to using lube every time, a man should also use a daily male organ vitamin lotion (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) to keep the male
    organ healthy.

    Feel free to visit my web page :: treatments for baldness in men

  99. 99
    factory balls Says:

    It’s really very complicated in this full of activity life to listen news on TV, therefore I just use the web for
    that reason, and obtain the most up-to-date information.

  100. 100
    quantum forex Says:

    I was suggested this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether
    this post is written by him as no one else know such detaiiled about my
    difficulty. You’re wonderful! Thanks!

    Look at my blog post – quantum forex

  101. 101
    Randal Says:

    So many beauty therapists are now providing the beauty home services using
    the best beauty products. Apply a dark brown mascara to the middle lashes, then tilt the wand diagonally and
    apply the mascara to the outer lashes. Just a dab on your
    pulse points will create a pleasing aura of

  102. 102
    zaborilenta Says:

    I really enjoy examining on this site, it has great blog posts. “Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” by Lord Kelvin.

  103. 103
    ???? ???????? ???? ??????? Says:

    Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing
    a blog article or vice-versa? My blog addresses a lot of
    the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you might be interested feel free to send me
    an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog
    by the way!

  104. 104
    41 ocean Says:

    Hmmm itt looks like your site ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess
    I’ll just sum it up what I had written and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I ass well am an aaspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to everything.
    Do yoou have any helpful hints for inexperienced blog writers?

    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

    Check out my wweb blog; 41 ocean

  105. 105
    http://luryeyo.wordpress.com Says:

    Hi, i believe that i noticed you visited my site sso i got here to go back thhe favor?.I’m trying
    to to find things to enhane my site!I guess its adequate to usse a few
    of your concepts!!

    My blog – comparison site, http://luryeyo.wordpress.com,

  106. 106
    computer repair Says:

    Hurrah! After all I got a web site from where I be able to
    really get valuable data concerning my study and knowledge.

  107. 107
    best movie site Says:

    Always make sure you’re browsing on a website that is known to be secured.
    That might seem to end much of used for the member, and it minimizes a considerable amount of spare money through contributions look at a little
    shopping around. ” It seems the more arousing you are in the world of entertainment, the more the disclaimer becomes moot.

  108. 108
    free pdf download for windows 8 Says:

    Having read this I believed it was rather enlightening.I
    appreciate you finding the time and energy to puut this short article together.

    I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount of time both reading and commenting.
    But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  109. 109
    free pdf download for windows 8 Says:

    Having read this I believed it was rather enlightening.
    I appreciate yoou finding the time and energy to put this short article together.
    I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount off
    time both reading and commenting. But soo what, it
    was still worthwhile!

  110. 110
    Vilma W. Lacson Says:

    Thank you for the good writeup. It in truth was
    once a amusement account it. Glance advanced to far brought agreeable from you!
    However, how could we communicate?

  111. 111
    sexywin.com Says:

    Hello, yeah this paragraph is truly good and I have learned
    lot of things from it regarding blogging. thanks.

  112. 112
    Nature Fit's Colon Cleanse Reviews Says:

    Nature Fit’s Colon Cleanse Reviews

    The Blow by Blow on Leaf Blower Abuse | Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog

  113. 113
    groups.drupal.org Says:

    It’s certainly a more pleasant experience than
    driving to the mall and fighting with crowds and limited parking.
    It ships with 3GB worth of internal memory and you can easily upgrade this up to 32GB via the phone’s micro – SD card slot.

    As the functionality of smartphones speeds on the question today is ‘Is the Samsung Galaxy Xcover 2
    able to match up to its smartphone title whilst taking on a robust shell’.

  114. 114
    Pianist Says:

    Leaf blower abuse? Is this seriously a thing?

  115. 115
    commodity2brands.com Says:

    Although maximum site owners are familiar with these concepts, but they may lack the expertise to do
    it the correctly. They only want your money and they want as much of it as they can possibly get.

    Make certain that the payment gateway you are
    making use of, permits similar languages as the remaining of the web pages so that they can match well together.

  116. 116
    Abbie Says:

    Ӏ couldn’t resist commenting. Veryy ell written!

    Αlso visit mу blog – buy instagram followers (Abbie)

  117. 117
    vp-corp Says:

    You are great man, thanks for sharing.

  118. 118
    Ulrich Says:

    Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice
    even as you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a weblog website?
    The account aided me a applicable deal. I have been a little bit
    familiar of this your broadcast offered vivid clear idea

  119. 119
    Vikki O. Ikner Says:

    Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this blog.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very
    difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance.
    I must say that you’ve done a excellent job with this.
    Additionally, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Opera.
    Outstanding Blog!

  120. 120
    yeast infection no more 5 steps Says:

    The superb thing is that whereas the total program can take a couple of
    months to fully realize its potential, quick-term relief may be enjoyed in lower than 12 hours.

  121. 121
    we are fans Says:

    The information you have really is help me. Many thanks advance, we will bookmark it now!

  122. 122
    agen tangkasnet tepercaya Says:

    I read this post fully on the topic of the resemblance of latest and previous technologies, it’s
    amazing article.

  123. 123
    Elvis Caldron Says:

    You made some decent points there. I did a search on the subject matter and found most guys will consent with your website.

  124. 124
    Elmer Bartha Says:

    Hello There. I discovered your blog the usage of msn. This is an extremely well written article. I

  125. 125
    temporary tattoos for adults Says:

    I like this weblog so much, saved to favorites. “American soldiers must be turned into lambs and eating them is tolerated.” by Muammar Qaddafi.

  126. 126
    trim 250 forskolin Says:

    Is there a degree that exists for use of music AND creative writing two fields? If there is, do you know the name of it?. . I want to combine these two of my interests (loves) but I don’t know what kind of degree offers the use of both.. . Please help? Approaching college?.

  127. 127
    Joane Broccoli Says:

    The Latest best link related website aircon service in singapore just link it to boost up thank you.

  128. 128
    ios development Says:

    Heya! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts! Carry on the fantastic work!

  129. 129
    iphone ios where to find Says:

    Thank you a lot for sharing this with all of
    us you actually recognise what you are talking approximately!
    Bookmarked. Please also discuss with my web site =). We could have a hyperlink trade contract between us

  130. 130
    zippo Lighterens dna Says:

    zippo Lighterens dna

    The Blow by Blow on Leaf Blower Abuse | Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog

  131. 131
    Claudia Says:

    I like your article.

  132. 132
    shopping mart Says:

    Fastidious response in return of this question with solid arguments and explaining everything on the topic
    of that.

  133. 133
    Marko Says:

    Why don’t you source your information? Anyway, great article!

  134. 134
    kota bunga cipanas Says:

    Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice whilst you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a weblog website?

    The account aided me a appropriate deal. I have been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast
    provided vibrant transparent idea

  135. 135
    homepage Says:

    Great web site you have got here.. It’s difficult to find good quality writing like yours
    these days. I seriously appreciate individuals like you!
    Take care!!

  136. 136
    Velvet Mykins Says:

    Yet another issue is that video games are usually serious anyway with the major focus on learning rather than leisure. Although, we have an entertainment feature to keep the kids engaged, just about every game will likely be designed to work towards a specific set of skills or programs, such as mathmatical or scientific research. Thanks for your write-up.

Leave a Reply

© 2015 Terra Nova Ecological Landscaping blog | Entries (RSS) and Comments (RSS)

Global Positioning System Gazettewordpress logo